Independence Day of Pakistan


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Independence Day of Pakistan

Pakistanis are going to celebrate their independence day on the coming 14th August. So I am going to write an article about the Independence Day of Pakistan.

Aims and objectives of the creation of Pakistan were as under:

  • Setting up of a free Islamic society
  • Preservation of Muslim entity
  • Freedom-requisite of Islam
  • Foundation of Islamic state
  • Setting up of true Islamic society
  • Prejudicial circumstances and narrow-mindedness of Hindus
  • Attainment of peaceful conditions
  • Islamic culture and civilization
  • Guarding the Urdu language
  • Deliverance from economic exploitation
  • Setting up a center of the unity of Islamic world

     Historical background

Sindh was annexed in AD 712 by Muhammad din Qasim who advance as far as Multan. Although the Muslims withdrew from Sindh Makran continued to remain under Muslims rule for many years.

In AD 1001, the Muslims entered the sub-continent from the north-west, this time under the leadership of Mahmud Ghaznavi- with the passage of time, Muslims began to rule over a large area termed as “sub-continent”. This Muslim power was ended at Bahadur shah Zafar the last Mughal Empire, when British came into sub-continent

  Arrival of Britishers

The British entered the politics of the indo-Pakistan sub-continent through their trading concern, the East India Company, which was founded on 31 December 1600. Eventually, they displaced the local Muslim rulers, who had been in power for 650 years. Before the Muslims, the Hindus and earlier still, the aboriginal tribes and Dravidians, were master of this region. It is important, therefore to understand the history of the sub- continent in order to appreciate how and why Pakistan was created.

History of Pakistan movement

Pakistan appeared on the world map as the independent Islamic country of the world on August 14, 1947. It is an ideological country, which came into being in the name of Islam. Tow nation theory is the basic of the creation of Pakistan Muslim and Hindus being toe separate nation from every definition though lined together in India over the centuries but remained poles apart as nothing was between the two.

  Important Events of a Glance

1857 war of independence

An anti- British uprising which was called as the Sepoy Rebellion/ First war of independence. It was crushed with an iron hands. The British blamed the Muslims for the mutiny and subjected the ruthless punishment. It marked the final collapse of the Mughal Empire and the progressive of the Muslims.

1885-Formation of the Indian National congress

A liberal Indian organization founded by A.W Hume, a retired member of the Indian civil serve. Its aim to fuse all discordant elements, regenerate the nation and consolidates the union between England and India. After 1930 it became a typical Hindu organization always at loggerheads the Muslim league.

1905- partition of Bengal

The Bengal presidency was partitioned by Lord Curzon and its boundaries redrawn to create provinces of manageable size. It was purely an administrative measure but the Hindus raised their voices against it and denounced it as an anti-Hindu measure aimed at breaking their monopoly.it reflected the divergent attitude of the Hindus and the Muslims.

Simla conference

The support gained by the All-India Muslim League and its demand for Pakistan was tested after the failure of the Shimla Conference 1945. Elections were called to determine the respective strength of the political parties.

Foundation of Muslim League

In October 1906 a deputation comprising 35 Muslim leaders met the viceroy at Shimla and demanded separate electorates. The All-India Muslim League was founded at Dhaka with the object of looking after the political rights and interests of the Muslims. The British conceded separate electorates in the Government of India Act of 1909 which confirmed League’s position as an All-India Party.

1909-Minto-Morley Reform

These reforms provided for separate electorates in all provinces. The imperial Legislative Council and the province council were enlarged. It also met the demands of the Shimla Deputation (1906).

1911-Annulment of the partition of Bengal

In December 1911, King George V announced the annulment of the partition of Bengal. The Muslims were bewildered. Hindus agitation had triumphed. Khawaja Salimullah President-elect of the All India Muslim League said. “The annulment of the partition has put a premium on sedition and dis loyalty” The annulment widened the cleavage between Hindus and Muslims.

1914-18 World War 1

Also known as the Great War. It was an international struggle that raged over the world between August 1914 and November 1918. France, Russian and Great Britain were arrayed on one side and Germany, Austria, Turkey, on the other. The war ended with the treaty of Versailles (1918). The Khilafat Movement which was started in 1919 in India was an offshoot of this war.

1916 Lucknow Pact

A joint League- Congress agreement in which the Muslim League overtures of good will and friendship were fully reciprocated by the Congress who conceded separate electorates to the Muslims.

1919 Montague-chelmfsord Reform

These reforms introduced “diarchy”. Separate electorates were continued.

1919-23 Khilafat Movement

An India Muslim Movement for the preservation of the Khilafat and the territorial integrity of Ottoman Empire. The Brothers were its leading proponents. Gandhi supported the movement and encouraged non-cooperation with the British. A section of India Muslim, to express their indignation, resorted to ‘Hijrat’. They gained nothing. The movement petered out when Mustafa Kamal Ataturk itself abolished the caliphate.

1922-29 Hindu-Muslim Riots

Starting with 1922. India was the scene of bloody Hindu-Muslim riots for the next seven years. Hindu leaders were rabid communalists. Arya Semaj, shuddhi, sanghathan activities targeted the Muslims. These riots marked a high point in communal bitterness and increased Muslim estrangement.

1927 Delhi Muslim Proposals

These proposals were a fresh try for a Hindu-Muslim settlement. A group of prominent Muslims met at Delhi on March 20, 1927. The Muslims were ready to forgo the separate electorate if their following demands were conceded. Sind should be separate from Bombay, and reforms introduced in NWFP and Baluchistan. Muslim representation in the Central Legislature should not bi less than 1/3. The Muslims should be given representation according their population with reservation of seats.

1928 Nehru Report

The Nehru Report published in August was a patently anti-Muslim document. It included ument. ntly anti-a draft constitution for India. It recommended that:

  1. A declaration of Human Rights should be inserted.
  2. NWFP be given full provincial status.
  3. Sind be separate from Bombay.
  4. Separate electorates be immediately abolished.5. No weightage be allowed.

The Report rejected a federation and supported a unitary government.

1929 Quaid-I-Azam’s Fourteen Points

The Muslim League at the time was torn by internal dissension. The Quaid outlined a programme on which Muslims could unite.

1930 Simon Report

A constitutional report that rejected the unity system and recommended a federal framework for India. It also recommended 1. Doing way with diarchy and 2. Setting up of a council of Greater India.

1930-Allama Iqbal Address

In December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal addressed the Muslim League annual session at Allahabad and advocated the idea of the partition of the subcontinent. He even demand and defined the frontiers of a proposed “Consolidated Muslim State”. Which he believed would be “in the best interests if”.

1930-32 Round Table Conferences

Meanwhile, three Round Table Conferences were converted in London during the period 1930-32, to resolve the India constitutional problems. The Hindu and Muslim leaders could not draw up an agreed formula and the British Government had to announce a ‘Communal Award’ which was incorporated in the Government of India Act of 1935.

1932-Communal Award

The Process of constitution making had gone through many stages from Government of India Act 1919 to Communal Awards in 1932. Communal rivalries were noticed during discussions with the India leadership. The Simon commission and Round Table Conferences failed to evolve an agreeable formula. The India leaders also failed to reach at an agreement to settle communal problem. In August 1932, a Communal Awards was announced in which separate electorates the Muslims were allowed to continue.

1935-Government of India Act

This Act, strengthened parliamentary institutions yet kept ultimate power in the hands of the British. There were to be elected legislatures. The Governor General was the Chief Executive and absolute authority. Dyarchy was abolished.

1937-elections

Elections to the provincial legislative assemblies were held in 1937 under the Government of India Act 1935. Congress won majorities in eight provinces and formed ministries. It fared badly in Muslim majority provinces. Muslims, on their side, were divided among themselves.

1937-39 Congress Rule in the provinces

The rule of the Congress ministries was totalitarian and nothing short of a nightmare. It popularize the idea of Pakistan alienated the Muslims from the idea of a United India.

1939-45 World War 2

War between Germany, Italy and Japan (the Axis powers) on one side and British, France, U.S.A. The U.S.S.R and China (the allied power) on the other.it was a struggle between the forces of democracy and dictatorship. 55 million live were lost. Germany surrendered in May 45 and japan in July 45 after the atomic attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

1940- The Pakistan Resolution

During 1937-1939, several Muslim leaders and thinkers inspired by Allama Iqbal’s ideas, presented elaborate schemes of partition the Sub-continent on communal lines. The All-India Muslims League on March 32,1940, in a resolution at its Lahore session, demand separate homeland for Muslims in the Muslim ,majority regions of the Sub-continent. The resolution was communal referred to as the Pakistan Resolution.

1942-Cripps Mission

Sir Stafford Cripps arrived in New Delhi for talks with India Leaders on the future constitution of India. He discussed the draft proposals. The Muslim League rejected the proposals at there was no provision for amendments or for the formation of two constituent assemblies instead of one.

1944-Gandhi-Jinnah Talks

Gandhi – Jinnah talks were held at Bombay on the basis of the Rajagopalachari formula to resolve the differences between the Congress and the All India Muslim League on the issue of Pakistan Gandhi was opposed to the Two Nation Theory and refused the Muslims the right of self- determination. These talks failed.

1945-The Simla Conference

The support gained by the All-India Muslim League and its demand for Pakistan was tested after the failure of the Shimla Conference 1945. Elections were called to determine the respective strength of the political parties.

1946-The Cabinet Mission

The Cabinet Mission proposals stipulated a weak Center, supreme only in foreign affairs, defence and communication, and three autonomous groups of provinces. Two of these were to have Muslim majorities while the third one was to have a Hindu majority. The Muslim League accepted the plan but the Congress gave a qualified consent. Nehru’s defiant posture and refusal to accept the groupings and a less powerful center, angered the Quaid, who later rejected the plan.

1946-Direct Action Day

Disgusted with the Congress stance vis-à-vis the Cabinet Mission Plan, the Quaid voted for observing Direct Action Day on August 16, to press for Pakistan. For the first time in its annals League said good-bye to constitution al struggle for achieving their goal.

1946-Interim Government Installed in Office

The British Government proposed on 22 July that an Interim Government be formed at the center Initially both the Congress and the Muslim League rejected the proposal. The Viceroy then asked only Nehru to from the government. The Muslim League regretted the installation of a one-party government and flew black flags. It later realized that its exclusion from the government was playing havoc with Muslim interests. Finally after long complicated negotiations the League joined the government. Liaquat Ali Khan was given the Finance portfolio. Congress was to regret this decision.

1946-June 3 Partition Plan

This plan for the partition of India was prepared by Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, consultation with the British government. It was based on the fundamental principle that transfer power should take place according

To the wishes of the people. A time-limit for British withdrawal from the subcontinent was fixed. The British decided to hand over power on 16 August 

1947 to two successor states to be known as India and Pakistan.

1947-Pakistan Achieved

14 August 1947 was Pakistan’s date with destiny. On that day, Mountbatten formally transferred power to the Constitution Assembly of Pakistan on behalf of his Majesty’s Government. On 15 August Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan. A seven-year old struggle came triumphantly to and end and a long cherished dream stood translated into reality.

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About Arfa Farheen

Hi! I am Arfa Farheen a teacher and an event blogger. I have done Master in Geography and Education. From the very beginning I was fond of celebrating important events, festivals and days around the world. I was eager to know the interesting facts about that, so now I decided to write all those things in my blog so that you can also know about the interesting facts, history and reality of that events. My blog is based on specific events, holidays, festivals, or any sort of national, international, cultural, religious, seasonal or popular event. I will show you people not only about the realities of such events but also how to celebrate and enjoy it. I always welcome your precious feedbacks. If you want to give any suggestion or have any query about my blog feel free to mail me at: javaria.mir@yahoo.com Stay connected Thank you for reading Arfa Farheen

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